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Wide and Narrow Faces
男人臉型長寬 透露誠不誠實 

Wide Faces Predict Unethical Behavior

Date: 05 July 2011 Time: 07:01 PM ET

 

 
Would you trust this guy? How about this guy?
CREDIT: LiveScience photo illustration; Dreamstime

A man's face might hint whether he is bad to the bone, with scientists finding that wider faces might predict unethical behavior in men.

Wide faces in men have been linked with aggression and perceptions of untrustworthiness. Now researchers have discovered that broad-faced men appear more likely to deceive their counterparts in negotiations and are more willing to cheat in order to increase their financial gain.

In one study, researchers analyzed how willing people were to lie. They measured the facial width-to-height ratio of 192 Masters of Business Administration students, 115 of whom were men. Next, they randomly assigned the volunteers to play either buyers or sellers role in negotiations over emails as part of a classroom exercise. Sellers were instructed not to sell a property unless they were certain it would not be used commercially, while buyers were instructed that they would certainly develop the property commercially if they bought it.
The scientists found men with broader faces were approximately three times as likely to lie in the negotiation than narrower-faced men. Facial width was not linked to either deception or trustworthiness in women. [How to Tell if a Man Is Trustworthy]

In another study, the researchers analyzed how willing volunteers were to cheat. They had 103 college students enrolled in a business ethics class, 50 of whom were men, each roll a pair of dice to see how many times they would be entered into a lottery. The participants all had the chance to lie about their dice roll to increase their chances of winning. The scientists not only measured facial width but also surveyed how powerful the volunteers generally felt, asking how much they agreed on a seven-point scale to eight statements such as "I can get people to listen to what I say" and "I think I have a great deal of power."

Men with broader faces overstated their dice rolls by an estimated 18.6 percent, while narrow-faced men overstated their rolls by less than 2 percent, said researcher Michael Haselhuhn, a management scholar at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Men with wider faces apparently felt more powerful in life than narrower-faced men, and the researchers noted that past research shows feelings of power are linked with less ethical behavior.

Just a study

The scientists cautioned the public to not take such findings to extremes.

"Are we advocating for the active discrimination of men born with relatively wider faces?" Haselhuhn said. "Our answer, of course, is 'no.' While our findings provide compelling evidence that men's facial structure is a reliable physical cue of the likelihood of engaging in ethically questionable behavior, we stress that it is but one of many factors that affect unethical judgment and action."

For instance, Haselhuhn emphasized that while they found wide-faced men were three times more likely to deceive their counterparts than narrower-faced men, "the majority — 60 percent — of men with relatively wide faces did not engage in deceptive behavior."

"We caution individuals to not consider men's facial structure to the exclusion of all factors," he told LiveScience. "Ethics research has shown that even small situational factors, such as whether it is light or dark in a room, can have a major impact on ethical judgment. In our studies, we controlled the environment to a large extent, and men were able to lie and cheat nearly anonymously; in other settings, where either men are held accountable for their actions, or when they find themselves in an organization that cultivates an honest work environment, the effects of men's facial structure will likely be mitigated to a certain degree." [History of Human Aggression]

Not all bad

Also, the researchers noted men with broad faces are not all bad. "In other research, we have found that the facial structure of Fortune 500 CEOs predicts firm financial performance, such that CEOs with relatively wider faces achieve greater financial success for their firm," Haselhuhn noted. "We believe that men's facial structure should be used as one important cue in detecting liars and cheaters, but caution should be taken in automatically labeling relatively wide-faced men as bad seeds."

Future research can investigate whether men with broad faces "have truly evolved to be less ethical, or whether these men 'learn' to be less ethical over time," Haselhuhn noted. "For example, if people are naturally inclined to act deferentially to men with relatively broad faces, these men may feel more powerful over time, leading them to act less ethically."

The scientists detailed their findings online July 6 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Follow LiveScience for the latest in science news and discoveries on Twitter @livescience and on Facebook.

男人臉型長寬 透露誠不誠實

更新日期:2011/07/07 00:52

(中央社台北6日電)想知道一個男人是否值得信賴,就仔細端詳他的臉。美國研究指出,寬臉男人較會騙人,長臉男人較誠實。

英國「每日郵報」(Daily Mail)報導,研究人員說,寬臉男人較不光明正大,而且比較會騙人。長臉男人比較誠實與坦率。

這項研究結果暗指,像是英國演員大衛田納特(David Tennant)與主演「怪醫豪斯」(House)的休勞瑞(Hugh Laurie)等名人,會比花名在外的傑克尼柯遜(Jack Nicholson)或有馬鈴薯臉的足球明星魯尼(Wayne Rooney)還值得信賴。

但科學家說,雖然這個發現會讓人想起顱相學-維多利亞時代的人認為,個人特質在頭型上表露無遺-但這項調查發現是根據兩個合理的科學實驗。

美國威斯康辛大學密爾瓦基分校(UniversityWisconsin-Milwaukee)領導研究的海斯霍恩(MichaelHaselhuhn)博士說:「我們證明了,有寬臉的男人讓人覺得比較有權威,權威感會讓人直接聯想到行為較不檢點,包括說謊與欺騙。」

也許有些男人真的是壞到骨子裡。但大部份的演化科學家,駁斥外表可透露一個人誠不誠實的看法。

如果身體特徵,像是寬臉或眼睛細長,真的能透露負面人格特質,這些人就比較難找到伴侶並生下小孩。

經過幾千年來的物競天擇,這些特質應該會消失。

不過,海斯霍恩主張,不誠實的身體線索可以留存下來,只要這跟女性視為正面的特質扯上關係,像是有魅力與足智多謀等。(譯者:中央社張曉雯)1000706

 

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