Ψ0*1 (1)理證心靈學の術語(英文)

Glossary of Terms in Parapsychology
by Michael Daniels PhD



Absent Healing Index
Healing that takes place when the healer is not in direct contact with the person to be healed.
Absent Sitter Index
A person, not present during a sitting, on whose behalf readings are given. See also Proxy Sitting.
Acupuncture Index
Traditional Chinese medical practice that involves sticking needles into specific locations on the body. See also healing.
Agent Index
(a) Person who attempts to communicate information to another in an ESP experiment. Cf. percipient.
(b) The subject in a psychokinesis experiment.
(c) Person who is the focus of poltergeist activity.
Akashic Records 法界記錄Index
"Memories" of all experiences since the beginning of time, believed by some mystical doctrines to be stored permanently in a spiritual substance (Akasha). Index
Alien Abduction Experience外星人綁架經驗 Index
Reported experiences of being abducted by alien creatures, often into spacecraft. Abductees often experience lost time and suffer loss of memory. When memories are recovered, often using hypnotic regression, abductees may report that surgical operations were performed on them. See also temporal lobe activity.
Alpha Rhythm Alpha腦波節拍 Index
Electrical activity in the brain (about 10 cycles per second) associated with a state of mental relaxation. See also EEG.
Altered State of Consciousness (ASC) 意識超拔狀態Index
A term used to refer to any state of consciousness that is different from "normal" states of waking or sleeping. ASCs include hypnosis, trance, ecstasy, psychedelic and meditative experience. ASCs do not necessarily have paranormal features.
Ancestor Worship Index
Religious practices involving the veneration of dead ancestors.
Angels Index
Benevolent spiritual beings who help people in need. See also guardian angel.
Animal Magnetism 生物磁能Index
A term coined by F.A. Mesmer to refer to a putative force or fluid capable of being transmitted from one person to another, producing healing effects. See also Mesmerism.
Animal Mutilation 生物殘剖Index
Refers to cases in which animal corpses (often cattle) have been found with bizarre injuries that do not seem to have a normal explanation in terms of illness, accident or action of predators. Cuts and injuries often appear to have been carried out with surgical precision. Typically the corpse is drained of blood. Certain body parts may be absent (e.g., genitals).
Animal Psi 動物超能力Index
Paranormal abilities exhibited by animals. Also known as "Anpsi".
Animism 萬物有靈論Index
Religious practices based on the belief that all living things and natural objects have their individual spiritual essence or soul.
Announcing Dream Index
A dream believed to announce an individual's rebirth. See also reincarnation.
Anomalous Experience 興顯之夢Index
A general term referring to unusual experiences that cannot be explained in terms of current scientific knowledge. Cf. psi.
Anomalous Phenomena Index
Natural phenomena that cannot be explained in terms of current scientific knowledge. See also Fortean phenomena.
Anoxia Index
See cerebral anoxia.
Anpsi 動物超能力Index
See Animal Psi
Apparition Index
A visual appearance (cf. hallucination), often of a person or scene, generally experienced in a waking or hypnagogic / hypnopompic state. See also crisis apparition, ghost, haunting.
Apport Index
A physical object which appears in a way that cannot be explained (seeming to come from nowhere). Apports are often associated with the seance room and physical mediumship. Cf. deport. See also materialization, teleportation.
Artefact Index
In parapsychology, false evidence of paranormal phenomena, due to some extraneous normal influence.
ASC Index
See altered state of consciousness.
Astral Body 星光身 Index
A term used by occultists, spiritualists and theosophists to refer to a supposed "double" of the person's physical body. The astral body is believed to be separable from the physical body during astral projection (out of body experience) and at death. See also Ka.
Astral Projection 星光身投射 Index
A term used by occultists, spiritualists and theosophists for the out of body experience. It is believed to result when the astral body separates from the physical body.
Astrology 占星學 Index
A theory and practice which attempts to identify the ways in which astronomical events are correlated with events on earth (e.g., with an individual's personality and biography, or with social and political trends).
Atavism Index
Re-emergence of ancestral characteristics; a genetic throwback.
Augury Index
Aura 靈氣 Index
A field of energy believed by some to surround living creatures. Certain clairvoyants claim to be able to see the aura (generally as a luminous, coloured halo). See also Kirlian photography.
Automatic Art Index
See automatism.
Automatic Writing 靈乩自動書寫Index
The ability to write intelligible messages without conscious control or knowledge of what is being written. See also automatism, dissociation.
Automatism 靈乩 Index
Physical activites (e.g., arm movements, writing, drawing, musical performance) that occur without the automatist's conscious control or knowledge. Also known as motor automatism. See also automatic writing, dissociation.
Autoscopy Index
(a) Seeing one's "double". See also astral body.
(b) Looking back at one's own body from a position outside of the body. See also out of body experience.


Ba Index
Ancient Egyptian concept of a person's essence, believed to be be immortal. Cf. Ka. See also Soul.
Banshee Index
In Gaelic belief, a female entity who heralds a death by groaning and screaming.
Bardo 中陰Index
In Tibetan Buddhism, an intermediate state of existence, usually referring to the state between life and rebirth.
Basic Technique Index
Term used in card-guessing tests of clairvoyance, in which the top card of the deck is placed to one side after each guess.
Billet Reading Index
Procedure in which a question is secretly written on a piece of paper which is folded or sealed in an envelope, and handed to the psychic who attempts to answer the question. Various trickery can be employed by fraudulent psychics and mentalists.
Bilocation Index
Being (or appearing to be) in two different places at the same time. See also autoscopy.
Biofeedback 生物迴饋Index
A general term for techniques that involve giving a person information about their current physiological state (e.g., heart rate, EEG). Biofeedback is used to enable people to control consciously their physiological processes.
Bio-PK 生物念力Index
Psychokinetic effects on biological processes. See also DMILS.
Black Art Index
Conjuring technique of concealing objects using black covers against a black background. Also used by fraudulent mediums.
Black Magic Index
Magical spells or rituals practiced with the intention of harming others. Cf. white magic .
Blind Index
An experimental control in which subjects are not informed of certain key features of the experiment. Also used to refer to a procedure where a judge is asked to compare targets and responses without knowing which responses were made to which targets. See also double blind.
Blind Matching (BM) Index
An identical procedure to open matching, except that the key cards are unseen by the subject.
Book Test Index
(a) A communication in which the sitter is asked to look at a specific book and page in order to receive a significant message.
(b) An effect in which the psychic or mentalist divines the words written on a particular page of a book.


Cabinet Index
A box or curtained enclosure in which a physical medium is secured and from which various phenomena may manifest (e.g., lights, objects moving, instruments played). Certain stage magicians can simulate this procedure with great effect.
Call Index
Response made by a subject in a card-guessing or other ESP test.
Candomble Index
A Brazilian spiritist religion. See also Umbanda, Voodoo.
Card Guessing Index
An experimental test for ESP in which subjects guess the identity of a set of cards (e.g., playing cards or Zener cards).
Cartomancy Index
Fortune telling using cards. See also tarot.
Cerebral Anoxia Index
Lack of oxygen to the brain, often causing sensory distortions and hallucinations. Sometimes used to explain features of the near-death experience.
Chance Index
Random, unpredictable influences on events.
Channeling Index
Receiving messages and inspiration from discarnate entities. See also medium.
Charm Index
A spell or object possessing magic power.
Christian Science Index
A religious healing movement founded by Mary Baker Eddy. Rejects orthodox medical practice.
Cipher Test Index
A coded message left by a person who intends to communicate the cipher after death.
Circle Index
A group of people who hold seances. See also mediumship.
Clairaudience Index
The paranormal obtaining of information by hearing sounds or voices. See also clairvoyance, clairsentience.
Clairsentience Index
An archaic term that refers to the paranormal obtaining of information using faculties other than vision or hearing. Cf. clairaudience, clairvoyance, empathy, intuition.
Clairvoyance Index
A general term that refers to the paranormal obtaining of information about an object or event. In modern usage, this does not necessarily refer to obtaining information visually. Cf. clairaudience, clairsentience, ESP, psi.
Clairvoyant Index
See clairvoyant medium.
Clairvoyant Medium Index
Or clairvoyant. A person who obtains information paranormally (often by spirit communication) without the need to enter into a trance state. Cf. trance medium.
Closed Deck Index
A set of cards used in a card-guessing test where each card appears a fixed number of times. Statistical analysis of research data using a closed deck differs from statistical analysis of data using an open deck.
Coincidence Index
The occurrence, within a short space of time, of two or more meaningfully related events and without any apparent causal connection between them. Coincidences are sometimes bizarre and extraordinarily improbable. See also synchronicity.
Cold Reading Index
A reading given with no prior knowledge of the sitter. Often a mixture of very general statements which could apply to anyone, together with inferences made from cues presented by the sitter (e.g., physical appearance, clothes, tone of voice, statements made). Cf. hot reading.
Collective Apparition Index
An apparition seen simultaneously by more than one person.
Collective Unconscious Index
Concept put forward by C.G. Jung to refer to a level of unconscious thought and experience shared collectively by humans.
Communication 降乩 Index
In mediumship, a message purported to be from a discarnate entity.
Communicator 降乩之靈 Index
A discarnate entity from whom the medium receives messages. See also drop-in communicator.
Confederate Index
A person who secretly provides information to a fraudulent psychic or mentalist.
Conjuring Index
Using trickery to simulate paranormal effects, generally for the purpose of entertainment.
Contact Mind Reading Index
A technique simulating telepathy, in which the "mind reader" (who generally holds a hand or arm) responds to slight muscle movements produced unconsciously by the person whose mind is apparently being read. Also known as muscle reading, Cumberlandism or Hellstromism.
Control Index
(a) In experimental parapsychology a procedure undertaken in order to ensure that the experiment is conducted in a standard fashion and so that results are not unduly influenced by extraneous factors. See also control group, artefact.
(b) In spiritualism, a discarnate entity who communicates with a trance medium and who generally controls the trance state.
Control Group Index
A group of people whose performance is compared with that of experimental subjects. Cf. experimental group.
Corn Circle Index
Circular (or more elaborate) formations found in growing crops, most commonly in Southern Britain. Sometimes they are associated with UFO sightings. Many formations appear to have been intelligently created and to have some symbolic meaning. Despite several "confessions" made by various individuals and groups, the crop circle mystery remains unsolved.
Correlation Index
An association between two or more events or variables.
Correlation Coefficient 相關性係數 Index
A mathematical index of the degree of association between two or more measures.
Cosmic Consciousness 宇宙意識 Index
A blissful experience in which the person becomes aware of the whole universe as a living being. See also altered state of consciousness, mystical experience.
Coven Index
A group of witches
Crisis Apparition Index
An apparition in which a person is seen within a few hours of an important crisis such as death, accident or sudden illness.
Cross-correspondence Index
(a) Separate items of information, received independently by two or more mediums, which make sense only when pieced together.
(b) THE cross-correspondences is a classic case of highly complex cross-correspondences which continued from 1901 to 1932 among a group of automatists associated with the Society for Psychical Research.
Cryptomnesia Index
Knowledge (acquired in normal ways) that may be revealed without the person remembering its source. Such memories may falsely appear to be paranormal revelations. Sometimes cryptomnesia is used as an explanation for apparently paranormal experiences such as xenoglossy or past-life memories.
Crystal Gazing Index
Staring into a reflecting surface (e.g., mirror, glass, crystal, liquid) in order to obtain paranormal information. Also known as scrying. See also divination.
Cumberlandism Index
See contact mind reading.
Curse Index
Words spoken or written in order to influence others paranormally, causing them harm. See also spell, hex.


Daemon (Daimon) Index
A guardian spirit who communicates inspiration and advice. See also guardian angel.
Death Index
Generally understood to be the extinction of an organism's life. Many doctrines assert some form of mental or spiritual survival of physical death. See also deathbed experience, haunting, mediumship, near-death experience, reincarnation.
Deathbed Experience Index
A dying person's awareness of the presence of dead friends or relatives. See also near-death experience.
Decline Effect Index
A decrease in performance on a psi test when the test is repeated. Cf. incline effect.
Deja Experience Index
See deja vu.
Deja Vu Index
A person's feeling that current events have been experienced before.
Delta Index
A term used to refer to any kind of anomalous experience.
Dematerialization Index
The paranormal fading or disappearance of a physical object. See also deport.
Demonic Possession Index
Possession by evil spirits. See also exorcism.
Deport Index
The paranormal movement of objects out of a secure enclosed space. Cf. apport. See also dematerialization, teleportation.
Dice Test Index
Experimental techniques for investigating psychokinesis, in which a subject attempts to influence the fall of dice.
Direct Voice Index
A voice heard in a seance which does not seem to emanate from any person. The voice may seem to come out of thin air, or from a trumpet used specifically for this purpose. Cf. indirect voice.
Discarnate Entity Index
A spirit or non-material entity. Often used to refer to the personality of a deceased individual. See also channeling, communication, mediumship, possession, survival.
Displacement Index
Responses on a psi test that correspond systematically to targets other than the intended one (e.g., those before or after).
Dissociation Index
Activity performed outside of normal conscious awareness, or mental processes that suggest the existence of separate centres of consciousness.
Divination Index
Practices involving the interpretation of signs or symbols that seek to obtain oracular knowledge of events. Examples of divinatory practices are geomancy, tarot, I Ching, sortilege, and reading tea leaves.
Divining Rod Index
A forked rod (or sometimes a pair of L-shaped rods) used in dowsing.
"Direct Mental Interaction with Living Systems". Psychokinetic influences on physiological processes. See also Bio-PK.
Doppelganger Index
A mirror image or double of a person. See also astral body.
Double Index
A duplicate of one's own body. See also astral body
Double Blind Index
An experimental procedure in which neither the subject nor experimenter is aware of key features of the experiment.
Down Through Technique (DT) Index
An experimental test for clairvoyance in which the person guesses the order of a stacked series of target symbols (e.g., cards) from top to bottom. Cf. up through technique.
Dowsing Index
The paranormal detection of underground water or mineral deposits (or lost persons and objects) using a divining rod or pendulum.
Dream Index
See paranormal dream.
Drop-in Communicator Index
An uninvited communicator who 'drops in' at a sitting.


Earthquake Effect Index
A phenomenon produced by the physical medium D.D. Home, involving the room shaking as if there was an earthquake.
Ecstasy Index
An altered state of consciousness in which the person experiences great rapture and loss of self-control. Cf. trance.
Ectoplasm 靈波,靈氣,心靈質 Index
A semi-fluid substance exuded by a physical medium from which materializations may form.
EEG (Electro-encephalography) 腦電圖,腦(電位)波圖 Index
A method of recording variations of electrical activity in the cortex of the brain.
Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP) 電子異聲現象 Index
See Raudive voices.
Elemental Spirit 元素靈 Index
A spirit associated with one of the classical four elements (fire, earth, air and water). See also animism.
Elongation 身延伸 Index
Paranormal extension of the physical body, reported in some mystics and physical mediums.
Empath Index
Someone who shows considerable empathy, especially of the apparently psychic type.
Empathy Index
The ability to understand the experience or emotional state of another person or animal. Often used to refer to an apparently psychic ability to experience another person's sensations, pain or emotions. Cf. clairsentience, intuition.
Entity Index
See discarnate entity.
ESP 超感官知覺 Index
See Extrasensory Perception.
ESP Cards 超感官知覺測試卡 Index
See Zener Cards.
Etheric Body 空質體 Index
Similar to astral body.
Evil Eye Index
Alleged ability of some people to harm others by looking at them.
EVP 電子異聲現象 Index
Electronic Voice Phenomena. See Raudive voices.
Evocation Index
The summoning of (often evil) spirits using a magical incantation or ritual. Cf. invocation.
Exorcism Index
A religious or quasi-religious rite to drive out evil spirits. See also possession.
Experiment 實驗 Index
A test carried out under controlled conditions.
Experimental Group 實驗組 Index
A group of subjects who undergo a specific experimental procedure. Often results from this group are compared with those of a control group.
Experimental Parapsychology 實證心靈學 Index
Parapsychological research involving experimental methods rather than survey techniques or the investigation of spontaneous cases.
Experimenter 實驗施測者 Index
The person who conducts the experiment.
Experimenter Effect 實驗效應 Index
Influence that the experimenter's personality or behaviour may have on the results of an experiment.
Extradimensional Index
Originating outside our normal space-time reality. Cf. extraterrestrial.
Extrasensory Perception (ESP) 超感官知覺 Index
Paranormal acquisition of information. Includes clairvoyance, telepathy and precognition. See also psi.
Extraterrestrial 外星的 Index
Originating beyond planet Earth. Not normally considered to be extradimensional.


Fairy 仙靈 Index
Small, human-like mythical being. May be benevolent or malevolent.
Faith Healing Index
Healing that is associated with prayer or belief in Divine power.
False Awakening Index
An experience in which a person believes he or she has woken up, but actually is still dreaming.
Faraday Cage Index
A wire mesh enclosure that provides a shield to radio waves.
Feedback 迴饋 Index
The giving of information to subjects about their performance on a test. See also biofeedback.
Fire Walking 過火 Index
Walking on red-hot coals, without pain or damage to the feet.
Flying Saucer 飛碟 Index
A term, coined in 1947, to refer to unknown disk-like aerial objects, often believed to be extraterrestrial spacecraft. The term has now been largely superseded by "UFO".
Focal Person 焦點人 Index
Person who is at the centre of poltergeist activity.
Forced-Choice Test Index
An ESP test in which the subject guesses from a predetermined list of alternative targets.
Fortean Phenomena Index
Strange phenomena, especially those which challenge conventional scientific knowledge. Named after the American researcher and writer Charles Fort. Fortean phenomena include those generally considered paranormal, but also bizarre non-paranormal events such as monsters and prodigies, extraordinary coincidences, and unusual rains.
Fortune Telling 預言 Index
Various practices which aim to divine future events. See also divination.
Fraud 欺詐 Index
The deliberate faking of paranormal phenomenena, generally for the purpose of financial gain, psychological manipulation, or notoriety. Faking for the purpose of entertainment (e.g., by stage magicians and mentalists) is not normally classed as fraud.
Free-Response Test Index
An ESP test in which the subject responds freely (does not choose from a fixed list of targets). For example, the subject may write down or draw their impressions, or may talk freely into a tape recorder. In order to assess the accuracy of the responses, they are compared with various targets (including the actual target) by a judge. See also preferential matching.


Ganzfeld 全場研究Index
A technique for investigating ESP in which the person experiences an absence of patterned stimulation. This generally involves the subject wearing halved table-tennis balls over the eyes while listening to hiss (white noise) through headphones.
General Extrasensory Perception (GESP) 泛超感官知覺 Index
ESP in which it is unclear whether the results are due to clairvoyance, telepathy, precognition or retrocognition.
Geomancy Index
A system of divination involving the interpretation of lines or figures.
GESP 泛超感官知覺 Index
See general extrasensory perception
Ghost 鬼 Index
Popular term for an experience believed to indicate the presence of the spirit of a deceased person. See also apparition, haunting, poltergeist.
Gimmick Index
In conjuring, any small concealed apparatus that is used to produce a magical effect. Also used by fraudulent mediums.
Glossolalia Index
Unintelligible speech generally uttered in a dissociated or trance state. Also known as "speaking in tongues". See also xenoglossy.
"Goat" Index
Name given to a subject in a psi test who does not believe in the phenomenon. See also "sheep", sheep-goat effect.
Guardian Angel 守護靈 Index
An angel believed to protect the individual. See also guide.
Guide 嚮導 Index
A spirit who is believed to assist a person's spiritual journey. See also angel, guardian angel


Hallucination 幻覺 Index
A sensory experience that does not correspond to physical reality. See also apparition.
Haunting 鬧鬼 Index
Paranormal phenomena such as apparitions, unexplained sounds, smells or other sensations that are associated over a lengthy period of time with a specific location. Cf. poltergeist.
Healer 靈療者Index
Someone who claims the power of healing.
Healing 靈療 Index
Generally indicates cures that cannot be explained in terms of accepted medical principles. See also faith healing, psychic healing, spirit cures.
Hellstromism Index
See contact mind reading.
Hex Index
(a) An evil spell or magical curse.
(b) To practice witchcraft.
Hit Index
A response that accurately matches the target. Cf. miss.
Hot Reading Index
A reading given in which prior knowledge of the sitter has been obtained, often using devious or fraudulent means. Cf. cold reading.
Huna Index
An Hawaiian religious practice involving clairvoyance, precognition, healing, miracles and magic.
Hyperacuity Index
See hyperaesthesia.
Hyperaesthesia 神經過敏 Index
Exceptionally acute sensory awareness.
Hypnagogic Imagery 催眠中幻象Index
Imagery occurring in the hypnagogic state (occuring while dropping off to sleep).
Hypnopompic Imagery 后催眠幻象Index
Imagery occurring in the hypnopompic state (occurring while waking up).
Hypnosis 催眠,催眠狀態 Index
An ASC involving a heightened degree of suggestibility. See also Mesmerism.
Hypnotism 催眠,催眠術Index
See hypnosis.


I Ching 易經 Index
Ancient Chinese "Book of Changes". It describes 64 hexagrams (patterns of 6 broken and unbroken lines) which are used in a divinatory practice involving the throwing of yarrow stalks or coins.
Illusion 幻覺 Index
(a) An appearance that leads the person to draw mistaken conclusions.
(b) In conjuring, a perceptual trick.
Imagery Index
The ability to perceive images in the mind. These may be visual, auditory, tactile, etc.
Immortality 永生 Index
Various beliefs based on the assumption that some aspect of personal existence survives death.
Incline Effect Index
An increase in performance on a psi test when the test is repeated. Cf. decline effect.
Incorruptibility Index
Inexplicable lack of decay in a corpse.
Indirect Voice Index
Mediumistic phenomenon in which the discarnate entity appears to speak using the vocal apparatus of the medium. Often the voice will sound very different from the medium's normal voice. Cf. direct voice.
Intuition Index
The non-paranormal ability to grasp the elements of a situation or to draw conclusions about complex events in ways that go beyond a purely rational or intellectual analysis. Cf. clairsentience, empathy.
Invocation Index
Summoning benevolent spiritual beings. Cf. evocation.


Judge Index
Person who compares targets and responses in an psi experiment.


Ka 靈體 Index
Ancient Egyptian term for the double or astral body. See also Ba.
Karma 業 Index
Hindu and Buddhist ethical doctrine of "as one sows, so shall one reap". See also reincarnation.
Key Cards Index
Reference cards used to indicate each target alternative in a card-guessing test.
Kirlian Photography 靈氣顯像Index
A photographic method involving high frequency electric current, discovered by S.D. & V. Kirlian in the Soviet Union. Kirlian photographs often show coloured halos or "auras" surrounding objects.
Kundalini 拙火 Index
In Yogic belief, a source of tremendous vital energy that may be stimulated by various practices. Kundalini, or the "Serpent Power", is believed to provide energy for paranormal phenomena.


Laying on of Hands Index
A healing practice, in which the healer's hands are placed on or near the body of the sick person.
Levitation 浮身 Index
The paranormal raising or suspension of an object or person.
Life after Death 死後 Index
See survival.
Life Review 生涯總省 Index
Flashback memories of the whole of a person's life, often associated with the near-death experience.
Lucid Dreaming 覺夢 Index
Dreaming in which the person is aware that the experience is a dream. Often associated with feelings of aliveness and freedom, and with the ability to control dream events.
Lucidity 覺夢 Index
(a) An early term for clairvoyance.
(b) Lucid dreaming.
Luminous Phenomena 顯光現象 Index
The experience of strange lights or glows, often around objects or people. See also aura.
Lycanthropy Index
The supposed magical transformation of a person into the form of a wolf. See also shape-shifting, therianthropy, werewolf.


Macro-PK 巨觀PK Index
Psychokinetic effects that can be directly observed rather than only inferred from statistical analysis. Cf. micro-PK.
Magic Index
(a) Practices that aim to use paranormal or spiritual means to influence events. See also white magic, black magic.
(b) The art of conjuring.
Magician Index
A person who practices magic.
Majority Vote Technique Index
An ESP procedure in which several subjects guess a target (or one subject makes several guesses). The most frequent guess is used as the response.
Mantra Index
A sacred sound or sacred syllables used in meditation. See also transcendental meditation.
Match Index
An alternative term for hit.
Matching Index
See preferential matching, matching tests.
Matching Tests Index
Card guessing tests in which the subject uses key cards when making guesses. See also blind matching, open matching, screen touch matching.
Materialization Index
The formation of a visible and tangible object or human shape during a seance. Cf. apport.
Mean Chance Expectation (MCE) Index
The most likely chance score in a psi test.
Medicine Man / Medicine Woman Index
A witchdoctor or shaman.
Meditation 坐禪 Index
Mental or physical-mental techniques which aim to produce spiritually desirable states of consciousness. See also ASC, Yoga.
Medium 靈媒 Index
A person believed to act as an intermediary between discarnate entities and the living. See also clairvoyant medium, trance medium, mental mediumship, physical mediumship.
Mediumship 靈乩,通靈 Index
Activity of a medium.
Mentalism Index
A branch of conjuring involving the simulation of psi.
Mental Mediumship Index
The paranormal obtaining of information by a medium. Cf. physical mediumship.
Mesmerism Index
A system of healing developed by F.A. Mesmer, involving the induction of trance states and the supposed transfer of animal magnetism. People in Mesmeric trance often showed paranormal abilities such as clairvoyance.
Message Index
See communication.
Metal Bending Index
Psychokinetic ability to bend metal objects. A phenomenon popularised by Uri Geller.
Metamorphosis Index
See shape-shifting.
Metempsychosis Index
Another term for reincarnation.
Micro-PK 微PK Index
Psychokinetic effects that cannot be directly observed, but only inferred from the statistical analysis of data. Cf. macro-PK.
Mind Reading Index
See telepathy.
Miracle Index
A beneficial event attributed to supernatural or divine intervention.
Misdirection Index
Techniques used by conjurers and mentalists to distract a person's attention or confuse their thinking.
Miss Index
A mismatch between the target and response. Cf. hit.
Mnemonist Index
A person who has learned techniques that enable extraordinary feats of memory.
Morphic Resonance Index
A term coined by Rupert Sheldrake to refer to the way in which the "morphogenetic field" (underlying form) of an object or organism may influence distant fields.
Motor Automatism Index
See Automatism
Multiple Personality 多重人格 Index
A psychiatric condition in which the person manifests two or more distinct and separate personalities at different times. Cf. possession.
Muscle Reading Index
See contact mind reading.
Mystic Index
(a) A person who has mystical experiences.
(b) Used loosely to refer to psychics, mediums or romantics.
Mystical Experience Index
ASCs involving experiences of ecstasy, unity, timelessness, loss of self, divine revelation, etc.
Mysticism Index
Religious or spiritual doctrines which argue that the human mind or soul can directly experience the divine. See also mystical experience, transpersonal psychology.


NDE 瀕死經驗 Index
See near-death experience.
Near-Death Experience (NDE) 瀕死經驗 Index
Experiences of people after they have been pronounced clinically dead, or been very close to death. Typical features of the NDE are an OBE, life review, a tunnel experience, light, coming to a boundary (marking death), seeing dead friends and relatives, experiencing a loving or divine presence, and making a choice (or being told) to return. Occasionally NDEs can be frightening and distressing. NDEs often have profound effects on the person's later life. See also cerebral anoxia, survival.
Necromancy Index
Black magic practices involving communicating with the dead.
Newspaper Test Index
(a) A communication in which the spirit forecasts an item in a future day's newspaper.
(b) An conjuring effect in which a magician or mentalist predicts a future newspaper item.
Null hypothesis Index
The hypothesis that experimental results are due to chance.
Numerology Index
A system of divination involving the interpretation of numbers.


OBE 離體經驗 Index
See out of body experience.
Object Reading Index
See psychometry.
Occam's Razor Index
The principle that we should always prefer the simplest explanation of events.
Occultism Index
Esoteric systems of belief and practice that assume the existence of mysterious forces and entities.
Omen 徵兆 Index
A sign that foretells events.
One-Ahead Principle Index
In mentalism, a procedure for sequentially revealing information where the revealing of one item gives the mentalist the next answer. Also used by fraudulent clairvoyants.
OOBE 離體經驗 Index
See out of body experience.
Open Deck Index
A series of cards used in a card guessing test where each card is chosen randomly and independently. This enables each target to be selected any number of times. Statistical analysis of research data using an open deck differs from statistical analysis of data using a closed deck.
Open Matching (OM) Index
A card guessing procedure in which key cards are placed face up on the table. The subject then places the unseen target cards in piles in front of each key card, according to their guesses. See also blind matching.
Oracle 神諭,神壇 Index
(a) An answer to a question, believed to come from the gods.
(b) a shrine at which these answers are given.
Orgone Energy Index
A term used by Wilhelm Reich to refer to a universal life force, associated with sexuality.
Ouija Board Index
A board with letters and numbers on which messages are spelled out by unconsciously moving (with the fingers) a glass or planchette. See also automatism.
Out Index
In conjuring and mentalism, a convincing explanation for an apparent failure, or a convincing alternative ending to an effect that has not worked as planned. Also used by fraudulent clairvoyants and mediums.
Out of Body Experience (OBE, OOBE) Index
A fully conscious experience in which the person's centre of awareness appears to be outside of the physical body. See also autoscopy, near-death experience.


Palmistry 手相術 Index
The art of assessing a person's character and forecasting life events by examining features of the hand. See also divination.
Paranormal Index
Beside or beyond the normal. Inexplicable in terms of our ordinary understanding or current scientific knowledge.
Paranormal Dream 靈異夢 Index
Dreams in which the dream imagery provides paranormal knowledge (e.g., ESP or precognition). See also announcing dream, lucid dreaming.
Parapsychology 心靈學 Index
Term coined by J.B. Rhine to refer to the experimental and quantitative study of paranormal phenomena. Now generally used instead of "psychical research" to refer to all scientific investigation of the paranormal. Cf. transpersonal psychology.
Past-Life Memories 前世記憶 Index
Mental images that are believed to be memories of previous lives. See also reincarnation, past-life regression.
Past-Life Regression Index
A technique of hypnosis involving regressing people to supposed previous lives. See also reincarnation.
Pendulum 靈擺 Index
An object suspended by a thread. Movements of a pendulum are often used by dowsers to locate objects or answer questions.
Percipient 接收方  Index
Person who receives impressions in an ESP test. See also agent, subject.
Phantasm 魅影 Index
An apparition.
Phenomenology 現象學 Index
An approach to research that aims to describe and clarify a person's own experience and understanding of an event or phenomenon.
Phrenology Index
The reading of character and mental ability from the shape of a person's skull.
Physical Mediumship Index
The production of paranormal physical phenomena (lights, sounds, materialization, elongation, levitation, etc.) by a medium. Physical mediumship often (but not always) involves a state of trance. See also mental mediumship.
Picture Drawing Index
A free-response ESP test in which the subject attempts to draw impressions of the target.
Pilot Study Index
A preliminary study, generally of modest scale.
PK Index
See psychokinesis
Placebo Index
An inactive treatment often given to a control group.
Placement Test Index
A test for PK in which the subject attempts to influence the place in which dice or other objects land. See also dice test.
Planchette Index
A small platform on casters generally used with a ouija board. Sometimes used with an attached pencil to produce automatic writing.
Plant Psi Index
ESP exhibited by plants.
PMIR Index
See psi-mediated instrumental response.
Pocomania Index
A Jamaican spiritist religion. See also Voodoo.
Poltergeist Index
German word meaning "noisy or troublesome spirit". Poltergeist activity may include unexplained noises, movements of objects, outbreaks of fire, floods, pricks or scratches to a person's body. Unlike hauntings, which are associated with specific locations, poltergeists typically focus on a person (the focal person or poltergeist agent) who is often a young child or adolescent. Many physical mediums experienced poltergeist activity in their childhood.
Possession Index
Refers to cases in which a person's body is apparently taken over by another personality or entity. Cf. multiple personality. See also demonic possession, discarnate entity.
Prayer Index
A sincere attempt to communicate with a spiritual being or power.
Precognition Index
The paranormal awareness of future events. See also prediction, premonition, prophecy.
Prediction Index
A statement that claims to foretell future events. Cf. premonition, precognition, prophecy.
Preexistence Index
Belief that the personality or soul exists prior to birth. Cf. survival. See also reincarnation.
Preferential Matching Index
Technique in which a judge ranks a subject's free responses in terms of their similarity to various possible targets.
Premonition Index
An experience believed to foretell future events. See also prediction, precognition, prophecy.
Presence Index
A subjective feeling that a person, animal or discarnate entity is present.
Probability Index
The likelihood that results in a test were due to chance. See also significance.
Process research Index
Research that aims to investigate factors affecting psi. Cf. proof research.
Proof research Index
Research that aims to demonstrate the existence of psi. Cf. process research.
Prophecy Index
(a) A prediction, usually resulting from a sense of spiritual revelation.
(b) The ability to receive prophetic revelations.
Proxy Sitting Index
A seance in which another person sits in on behalf of the person receiving a communication.
Pseudo-Random Numbers Index
Numbers generated by an electronic calculator or computer using a complex mathematical algorithm that simulates a random process. Although the numbers generated are essentially unpredictable, they are not strictly random. See also random numbers, random event generator.
Psi Index
A term used to encompass all paranormal abilities. Includes both ESP and PK abilities.
Psi-Hitting Index
Significantly better than chance performance on a psi test.
Psi-Mediated Instrumental Response (PMIR) Index
Theory put forward by Rex Stanford that psi activity is used to serve an organism's needs.
Psi-Missing Index
Significantly worse than chance performance on a psi test. Psi-missing is also evidence for psi, because a target can only be missed consistently if the person "knows" what it is.
Psyche Index
Generally refers to the mind.
Psychedelic Index
Literally "revealing mind". A class of plants and drugs (e.g., peyote, psilocybin, LSD) that can produce florid ASCs.
Psychic Index
A person who exhibits psi ability (also used as an adjective).
Psychical Research Index
Term coined in the late 19th century to refer to the scientific study of the paranormal. Now largely superseded by "parapsychology".
Psychic Healing Index
Forms of healing using psychic powers. See also laying on of hands, psychic surgery.
Psychic Photography Index
General term used to refer to paranormal photographic images. See also Kirlian photography, spirit photography, thoughtography.
Psychic Surgery Index
Actual or simulated surgical procedures carried out by healers.
Psychokinesis (PK) Index
The paranormal influence of the mind on physical events and processes.
Psychometry Index
Obtaining paranormal knowledge using a physical object as a focus. Also known as object reading.
Pyramid Power Index
Belief that pyramid shapes can produce paranormal effects.


Qualitative Method Index
A research method involving the collection of non-quantitative data (e.g., observations, interviews, subjective reports, case studies). Cf. quantitative method.
Quantitative Method Index
A research method involving the collection and statistical analysis of numerical data. Cf. qualitative method.


Radiesthesia Index
Theories based on the assumption that living organisms emit some kind of radiation or emanation that is capable of being detected using instruments or by dowsing. See also aura, radionics.
Radionics Index
Use of instruments to detect radiation from living organisms. See also radiesthesia.
Random Index
Refers to events that are, in principle, haphazard and unpredictable. See also chance.
Random Event Generator (REG) Index
An electronic device which uses a random physical process (e.g., radioactive decay) to generate random events or random numbers.
Random Number Generator (RNG) Index
See random event generator.
Random Numbers Index
Numbers generated in an unpredictable, haphazard sequence.
Random Number Tables Index
A printed table of random numbers, usually made up of several rows and columns of computer-generated numbers. To use the table a starting value is chosen by randomly selecting a row and column (e.g., by throwing a dice). Successive numbers are then chosen by working through the table using any previously chosen systematic rule. Suitable rules might be (1) moving horizontally to the right, skipping alternate numbers, or (2) moving vertically down, selecting every fifth number. The selected random numbers may then be used, for example, to determine target sequences.
Raps Index
The name given to unexplained knocking sounds associated with physical mediumship and poltergeist activity.
Raudive Voices Index
Intelligible voices recorded on magnetic tape under conditions of silence or white noise which are heard only when the tape is played. A phenomenon discovered by Konstantin Raudive.
Reading Index
Information given by a psychic or medium to a sitter. See also cold reading, hot reading.
Rebirth Index
In Buddhism, the belief that there is some continuty of mind from one life to the next. Buddhism, however, does not accept the existence of the individual soul and therefore does not view rebirth as the soul's literal re-incarnation. Cf. reincarnation. See also bardo.
Receiver Index
See percipient.
Recurrent Spontaneous Psychokinesis (RSPK) Index
A technical term for poltergeist activity.
Regression Index
(a) a statistical technique that enables predictions to be made from a set of data.
(b) a technique used in hypnosis, involving suggesting to hypnotized persons that they are returning to an earlier time. Sometimes the regression occurs spontaneously, without suggestion. See also past-life regression.
Reincarnation Index
The belief that some aspect of a person's being (e.g., consciousness, personality, or soul) survives death and can be reborn in a new body at some future date. Reincarnation is often seen as a repeating cycle of death and rebirth in which future lives are influenced by past and present actions through the law of karma. Cf. rebirth.
Remote Viewing (RV) Index
An ESP procedure in which a percipient attempts to become aware psychically of the experience of an agent who is at a distant, unknown target location.
Response Index
An action made by a subject in an experiment.
Response Bias Index
Tendency of a subject to prefer particular responses.
Retroactive Psychokinesis Index
Paranormal influence that an agent can have on an experiment after it has been completed.
Retrocognition Index
Paranormal knowledge of past events.
Ritual Magic Index
Magical activity involving rites and ceremonies.
RSPK Index
See recurrent spontaneous psychokinesis.
Run Index
A set of trials in a psi test.


Santeria Index
A Cuban spiritist religion. See also Voodoo.
Sceptic Index
A person inclined to discount the reality of the paranormal and to be critical of parapsychological research. Generally seeks rational or scientific explanations for the phenomena studied by parapsychologists.
Score Index
Number of hits obtained by a subject in a psi test.
Scoring Index
The process of determining a subject's score.
Screen Touch Matching (STM) Index
A card-guessing procedure in which the subject and experimenter sit on opposite sides of a screen which has a small gap at the bottom. Key cards are hung on the screen in front of the subject (the faces may be seen or unseen). Underneath each key card is a blank card that can be seen by both subject and experimenter. The experimenter holds the target cards and the subject indicates the guess on each trial by pointing to the corresponding blank card. The experimenter then places the card in a pile on his or her side of the screen in a position corresponding to that of the indicated blank card. See also blind matching, open matching.
Scrying Index
See crystal gazing.
Seance Index
A mediumistic session.
Second Sight Index
Another name for clairvoyance.
Sender Index
Another name for agent.
Sensitive Index
Another name for a psychic.
Sensory deprivation Index
Conditions of greatly restricted sensory input. See also ganzfeld.
Series Index
A sequence of runs in a psi experiment.
Serpent Power Index
See Kundalini.
Shaman Index
A witchdoctor or medicine (wo)man who communicates with spirits while in trance and who has the power of healing. May also show other paranormal abilities.
Shape-Shifting Index
Paranormal ability to assume the form of another person, an animal or other entity. See also lycanthropy, therianthropy, werewolf.
"Sheep" Index
Name given to a subject in a psi test who believes in the phenomenon. See also "goat", sheep-goat effect.
Sheep-Goat Effect Index
Effect, discovered by the parapsychologist Gertrude Schmeidler, in which "sheep" score higher than mean chance expectation (MCE) on psi tests, while "goats" score lower than MCE.
Siddhis Index
Name given to paranormal powers associated with the practice of Yoga.
Significance Index
Results of an experiment are said to be statistically significant when they are very unlikely to be due to chance (and hence, in a psi test, are more likely to be due to psi). The chance probability is reported as the "significance level". To be considered significant, the chance probability must generally be less than 1 in 20 (5%, or 0.05).
Simultaneous Dream Index
A dream whose elements correspond closely with those in the dream of another person.
Sitter Index
A person who has a session with a medium.
Sitting Index
A seance.
Sixth sense Index
Popular term for ESP.
Skeptic Index
See sceptic.
Slate-Writing Index
Writing that appears on a slate during a seance. Often produced by fraudulent mediums and mentalists.
Sleep Paralysis Index
An (often frightening) state of seeming to being awake but unable to move. See also false awakening.
Somnambule Index
(a) a person who performs physical activity while asleep (e.g., sleep-walking).
(b) a person in a deep hypnotic state.
Sorcery Index
Black magic
Sortilege Index
Divination by lots.
Soul Index
The spiritual element of a person, generally believed to be immortal. See also Ba, spirit, survival.
Space Brothers Index
Extraterrestrial entities, channeled by some mediums. See also discarnate entity.
Speaking in Tongues Index
See glossolalia
SPE Index
See subjective paranormal experience.
Spectre Index
A ghost or apparition.
Spell Index
Written or spoken words believed to have magical power.
Spirit Index
(a) a discarnate entity.
(b) soul
(c) Divine essence.
Spirit Communication Index
See communication.
Spirit Cure Index
Healing that is believed to result from the intervention of spirits.
Spiritism Index
See spiritualism.
Spirit Photography Index
Photographs of figures or faces, believed by some to be those of deceased persons. These photographs are generally revealed as fraudulent.
Spiritualism (Spiritism) Index
Religious doctrines that advocate communication betwen the living and the spirits of the dead using a medium as intermediary.
Spontaneous Cases Index
Paranormal phenomena that occur in everyday life, unsought and unexpected.
Spontaneous Human Combustion (SHC) Index
Refers to cases in which a badly burned human body has been discovered in circumstances suggesting that the fire originated spontaneously in or on the body of the victim.
Statistics Index
Mathematical techniques for analysing and interpreting numerical data.
Stigmata Index
Unexplained markings on a person's body that correspond to the wounds of Christ.
Stimulus Index
See target.
Subject Index
A person whose psi ability is being investigated.
Subjective Paranormal Experience (SPE) Index
Or Subjective Psi Experience. An experience that the person who has it believes to be paranormal.
Subjective Psi Experience (SPE) Index
See subjective paranormal experience.
Subliminal Perception Index
Perceiving without conscious awareness.
Super-ESP Hypothesis Index
The suggestion that people are capable of unlimited ESP. The super-ESP hypothesis is often presented as an alternative to the survival hypothesis in explaining mediumistic phenomena (the medium is believed to obtain information using super-ESP powers and not directly from the spirit of a deceased person).
Supernatural Index
Survey Index
A method of data collection that involves interviewing (or giving questionnaires to) a representative and often large group of people.
Survival Index
The belief that some aspect of the person (e.g., consciousness, mind, personality, soul) lives on after death of the body.
Synchronicity Index
A term used by C.G. Jung to refer to coincidental events that are meaningfully but not causally connected.


Table-Tilting Index
Mysterious movements of a table, usually occurring in a seance when a group of people place their hands on the surface of the table. Often the movements are interpreted as spirit communications. Also known as table-turning or table-tipping.
Table-Turning Index
See table-tilting.
Target Index
The object or event which the subject attempts to perceive (ESP tests) or influence (PK tests).
Tarot Index
A special deck of cards (usually 78) used in fortune telling.
Telekinesis Index
Paranormal movement of objects.
Telepathy Index
Paranormal awareness of another person's experience (thoughts, feelings, etc.). In practice it is difficult to distinguish between telepathy and clairvoyance. See also ESP.
Teleportation Index
Paranormal transportation of objects to a distant place. See also apport, deport.
Temporal Lobe Activity Index
Electrical activity in the temporal lobes of the brain. Often associated with strange sensations, time distortions and hallucinations. Sometimes used as an explanation for seemingly paranormal experiences such as apparitions and alien abduction experiences.
Theosophy Index
Quasi-religious and philosophical system of the Theosophical Society, founded in 1875 by Madame Blavatsky. Its paranormal claims were controversially and damningly reported upon by the Society for Psychical Research in 1885.
Therianthropy Index
The supposed ability to change from human to animal form and back. See also lycanthropy, shape-shifting, werewolf.
Theurgy Index
Magical practices which aim to contact and communicate with the gods.
Thoughtography Index
Paranormal ability to produce images on photographic film (e.g., by concentrating on a mental image). Most famously demonstrated by Ted Serios. See also psychic photography.
Thought Transference Index
See telepathy
Trance Index
A dissociated state of consciousness, generally involving reduced awareness of surroundings and external events.
Trance Medium Index
A person who enters a state of trance in order to produce mediumistic phenomena.
Transcendental Meditation Index
A technique of meditation taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, involving the repetition of a sound (mantra).
Transmigration of Souls Index
See reincarnation.
Transpersonal Psychology Index
The study of experiences, beliefs and practices that suggest that the sense of self can extend beyond our personal or individual reality. The subject matter of transpersonal psychology overlaps to some extent with parapsychology, but the two disciplines tend to have different approaches and emphases. Parapsychology is primarily concerned to investigate evidence for and against the reality of paranormal phenomena. Transpersonal psychology, on the other hand, is more interested in investigating the transpersonal significance of such phenomena (i.e., the ways in which they may give people a sense of connectedness with a larger, more universal or spiritual reality). See also mysticism.
Travelling Clairvoyance Index
(a) An early term for the out of body experience.
(b) Clairvoyance exhibited when a subject travels in imagination to another location.
Trial Index
In psi tests, a single attempt to demonstrate paranormal ability (e.g., one attempt to guess a card or one attempt to influence the fall of the dice).
Trumpet Index
A conical tube (often luminous) used in seances to produce direct voice communication.


Ufology Index
The study of UFOs.
Umbanda Index
A Brazilian spiritist religion. See also Candomble, Voodoo.
Unidentified Flying Object (UFO) Index
Unexplained sightings of lights or objects in the sky, often taken to be evidence of extraterrestrial visitations.
Up Through Technique Index
An experimental test for clairvoyance in which the subject guesses the order of a stacked series of target symbols (e.g., cards) from bottom to top. Cf. down through technique.


Veridical Index
Information or experience that is confirmed by facts and events.
Veridical Dream Index
A dream that corresponds to real events (past, present or future) that are unknown to the dreamer.
Vision Index
A religious apparition.
Voodoo Index
A spiritist and ancestor religion, originating in Africa, and now found predominantly in Haiti, Jamaica and Cuba. Magical rites, trance states and possession all play a major role in Voodoo. See also Candomble, Pocomania, Santeria, Umbanda, zombie.


Werewolf Index
A person who has been magically transformed into a wolf or other dangerous beast. See also lycanthropy, therianthropy, shape-shifting.
White Magic Index
Magical spells or rituals to produce beneficial effects. Cf. black magic.
White Noise Index
A hiss-like sound, formed by combining all audible frequencies. See also ganzfeld.
Wicca Index
System of witchcraft, especially as practiced today in western countries.
Witch Index
Someone who practices witchcraft.
Witchcraft Index
Folk magic. See also wicca.
Witchdoctor Index
A medicine wo(man) or shaman.


Xenoglossy Index
The ability to speak or write in a language that has not been learned. See also glossolalia.


Yoga Index
Religious philosophy originating in India. It advocates the use of physical and psycho-spiritual techniques to lead the person to higher consciousness. See also meditation, siddhis.


Zener Cards Index
Set of 25 cards (5 each of circle, square, Greek cross, five-pointed star, three wavy lines) designed by the perceptual psychologist Karl Zener for use in card-guessing tests of ESP. Also known as ESP cards.
Zombie Index
A corpse that has been partly brought back to (soul-less) life by magic. See also Voodoo.

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  Page contents ?Michael Daniels, 1996-2003